by Dr Craig Rose PhD. The Seaweed Health Foundation. Oct 2012.
Iodine is an essential mineral for normal thyroid function, mammary gland development, and foetal and infant neurological growth. Despite this, iodine deficiency is epidemic in developing countries, parts of Europe and the United States (1). This deficiency is largely responsible for an epidemic of hypothyroid-linked illnesses and breast cancer. Such illnesses are being successfully treated with high dosages of iodine equivalent to the Japanese daily intake, which are particularly high as a consequence of a diet of seafood and seaweeds. These levels of iodine intake are 50-fold greater in Japan than in the US (2).
Iodine deficiencies in the developed world are increasing, and to epidemic proportions in the UK, with 76% of school aged girls (3) and 66% of adult women (4) being iodine deficient.
The cost of iodine deficiencies can be significant with, for example, Germany spending one billion dollars annually in both healthcare expenditures and lost work time as a result of iodine deficiency and resultant thyroid disease (5).
The oceans are the worldwide repository of iodine, and very little of the earth’s iodine is actually found in soil, and therefore within terrestrial foods.
The main sources are eggs, milk (although not so much in organic milk as supplements are not given to cows) and fish. Other sources are processed foods with iodised salt added, which is an artificial way of supplementing foods with iodine, and is common practice in some countries particularly with severe deficiencies.
By far the richest natural source of iodine is from seaweeds, which are widely consumed in Asian cultures.
Depending on the species, seaweeds can have 10–100 times higher mineral content, such as iodine, than land-based vegetables (6), (7).
The species of seaweed used in Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Organic Kelp Capsuleshas relatively moderate and highly beneficial levels of iodine in their naturally occurring forms. This species is Ascophyllum nodosum (common name being Egg or Knotted Wrack), which is sustainably harvested off the coast of the Scottish Outer Hebrides using proprietary methods of production.
Following from the requirements and health benefits of iodine discussed here, research has demonstrated that Japanese women who consume a traditional high-seaweed diet also have a low incidence of benign and malignant breast disease (8), (9). On the contrary, Japanese women who consume a Western diet low in seaweed or who emigrate to the United States lose this protective advantage and gain the same risk for fibrocystic breast disease and breast cancer as their Western counterparts (10), (11). Furthermore, Japan also has a low incidence of iodine-deficiency goiter and autoimmune thyroiditis (12). Consequently, it has been hypothesized, the amount of iodine in the Japanese diet has a protective effect for breast and thyroid disease (13).
This antioxidant effect of iodine may explain the therapeutic effects of seaweed baths or iodine-rich solutions known as thalassotherapy used historically to treat ocular diseases, thyroid disease, diabetes, cardiac and respiratory disease, and arteriosclerosis (14).
Napiers has been leading a research project with the Medical School at Glasgow University investigating the use of its products for iodine supplementation. Initial results are extremely positive, and we anticipate a full publication in a scientific journal in the near future.
Overall, seaweeds form an essential source of natural iodine, being described as an ideal food-safe natural source of the mineral iodine (15). Iodine is proven to be highly beneficial in the diet, and significantly deficient in western diets.
What our customers say:
Symptoms of thyroid deficiency are often mistaken for early menopause or 'middle-age'.
Kelp or Common Wrack
(Ascophyllum nodosum) is a vital natural source of chelated iodine which stimulate the production of TSH hormone.
1. Patrick L. (2008) Iodine: Deficiency and Therapeutic Considerations. Alternative Medicine Review Volume 13, Number 2
2. Miller (2008) Iodine – high doses treat the thyroid, breast disease and cancer. Caduceus, Issue 75, P 18
3. Vanderpump MP et al. (2011). Iodine status of UK school girls: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 377(9782):2007–2012
4. Combet et al. (2011) Unpublished. University of Glasgow Medical School, pilot study
5. Gutekunst R. Iodine deficiency costs Germany over one billion dollars per year. IDD Newsletter 1993;9:29-31. (cited in Patrick 2008)
6. Arasaki S, Arasaki T (1983) Low calorie, high nutrition vegetables from the sea to help you look and feel better. Japan Publications, Tokyo, 196 pp (cited in Holdt & Kraan (2011))
7. Nisizawa K (2002) Seaweed Kaiso, bountiful harvest from the seas. Sustenance for health and well-being by preventing common lifestyle related diseases. Kochi University, Kochi, 106 pp (cited in Holdt & Kraan (2011))
8. Pisani P, Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J. Estimates of the worldwide mortality from 25 cancers in 1990. Int J Cancer 1999;83:18-29. (cited in Patrick 2008)
9. Cann SAH (2006) Hypothesis: dietary iodine intake in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Nutr 25:1–11
10. LeMarchand L, Kolonel LN, Nomura AM. Breast cancer survival among Hawaii, Japanese, and Causcasian women. Ten-year rates and survival by place of birth. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:571-578.(cited in Patrick 2008)
11. Minami Y, Takano A, Okuno Y, et al. Trends in the incidence of female breast and cervical cancers in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 1959-1987. Jpn J Cancer Res 1996;87:10-17. (cited in Patrick 2008)
12. Konno N, Yuri K, Miura K, et al. Clinical evaluation of the iodide/creatinine ratio of casual urine samples as an index of daily iodide excretion in a population study. Endocr J 1993;40:163-169. (cited in Patrick 2008)
13. Cann SA, van Netten JP, van Netten C. Hypothesis:iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Controls 2000;11:121-127.(cited in Patrick 2008)
14. Smyth PA. Role of iodine in antioxidant defence in thyroid and breast disease. Biofactors 2003;19:121-130 (cited in Patrick 2008)
15. Teas J. Dietary brown seaweeds and human health effects. Section 9. Advances in applied phycology utilisation. In: Critchley AT, Ohno M, Largo DB. eds. World Seaweed Resources. Amsterdam, ETI Bioinformatics 2006 (cited in MacArtain et al (2007))
Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca)
Dulse (Palmeria palmata)